Entering the complex plane in the upper half of the near the real axis viewed from the lower half‐plane.
Here the complex variable is expressed as . The red surface is the real part of . The blue, semi‐transparent surface is the imaginary part of . The pink tube is the real part of the function along the real axis and the skyblue tube is the imaginary part of the function along the real axis. Along the real axis for , the real part is a monotonic function that for approaches ; going away from the real axis into the gives an oscillating function. The imaginary part vanishes identically along the real axis. The pole at is visible. Real part over the complex plane The real part of where . The surface is colored according to the imaginary part. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled real part, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. Along the real axis the real part of is a monotonic function for ; going away from the real axis into the gives an oscillating function with simple poles at . The absolute value of the real part of where . The surface is colored according to the absolute value of the imaginary part. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled absolute value of the real part , meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. Along the real axis the absolute value of the real part of is approaches as ; going away from the real axis into the gives an oscillating function. Imaginary part over the complex plane The imaginary part of where . The surface is colored according to the real part. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled imaginary part, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. Along the real axis the imaginary part of vanishes identically; going away from the real axis into the gives an oscillating function with simple poles at . The absolute value of the imaginary part of where . The surface is colored according to the absolute value of the real part. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled absolute value of the imaginary part, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. Along the real axis, the imaginary part of vanishes identically. Absolute value part over the complex plane The absolute value of where . The surface is colored according to the argument. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled absolute value, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. The poles at are visible. Argument over the complex plane The argument of where . The surface is colored according to the absolute value. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled argument, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. has lines of discontinuities over the . The square of the cosecant of the argument of where . For dominantly real values, the function values are near 0, and for dominantly imaginary values, the function values are near 1. The surface is colored according to the absolute value. The right graphic is a cyclically colored contour plot of the argument. Red represents arguments near and light‐blue represents arguments near 0. Zeropole plot The logarithm of the absolute value of where in the upper half‐plane. The surface is colored according to the square of the argument. In this plot, zeros are easily visible as spikes extending downwards and poles and logarithmic singularities as spikes extending upwards. The poles at are visible. Real part over the complex plane near infinity The real part of where . The surface is colored according to the imaginary part. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled real part, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. At , the function has an essential singularity. The absolute value of the real part of where . The surface is colored according to the absolute value of the imaginary part. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled absolute value of the real part, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. At , the function has an essential singularity. Imaginary part over the complex plane near infinity The imaginary part of where . The surface is colored according to the real part. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled imaginary part, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. At , the function has an essential singularity. The absolute value of the imaginary part of where . The surface is colored according to the absolute value of the real part. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled absolute value of the imaginary part, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. At the function has an essential singularity. Absolute value part over the complex plane near infinity The absolute value of where . The surface is colored according to the argument. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled absolute value, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. At , the function has an essential singularity. The two large blue colored dots in the right graphic are the polesat . Argument over the complex plane near infinity The argument of where . The surface is colored according to the absolute value. The right graphic is a contour plot of the scaled argument, meaning the height values of the left graphic translate into color values in the right graphic. Red is smallest and violet is largest. At , the function has an essential singularity. The square of the cosecant of the argument of where . For dominantly real values, the functions values are near 0, and for dominantly imaginary values, the function values are near 1. The surface is colored according to the absolute value. The right graphic is a cyclical colored contour plot of the argument. Red represents arguments near and light‐blue represents arguments near 0. Zeropole plot near infinity The logarithm of the absolute value of where in the upper half‐plane. The surface is colored according to the square of the argument. In this plot zeros are easily visible as spikes extending downwards and poles and logarithmic singularities as spikes extending upwards. At , the function has an essential singularity.
